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Wednesday, October 10, 2018

North America's First Color Plate Natural History Publication



The Carolina Parokeet illustrated here by Mark Catesby in 1729, was once a commonly found species in Eastern North America however the species has been declared extinct since 1939. Mark Catesby's  Natural History of Carolina, Florida & the Bahama Islands, from which this depiction of the Carolina Parokeet comes, is  widely considered a crowning achievement of 18th-century art and science, and it has lost none of its power to delight in the 250 years since its publication

CATESBY, MARK (1683 – 1749) VOL.I, TAB. 11, THE PARROT OF CAROLINA


Please contact us for price. Our intention is to offer the highest quality selections at the lowest cost.
Painted and etched by Mark Catesby (1638 - 1749)
Etching with hand color, paper dimensions: approximately 14 x 19 inches
From Volume I, Part 1 of Catesby's Natural History of Carolina, Florida & the Bahama Islands
London: 1729 - 1771
Currently known as the Carolina papakeet, Conuropsis carolinensis and bald cypress or swamp cypressTaxodium distichum*, Catesby described this subject as follows:
PSITTICUS CAROLINIENSIS.
The Parrot of Carolina.
This Bird is of the bigness, or rather less than a Black-bird, weighing three ounces and an half: the fore-part of the Head Orange-colour; the hind-part of the Head and Neck yellow. All the rest of the Bird appears green; but upon nearer crutiny the interior vanes of most of the wing-feathers are dark-brown: the upper-parts of the exterior vanes of the larger Wing or Quill-feathers, are yellow, proceeding gradually deeper colour'd to the end, from yellow to green, and from green to blue: the edge of the Shoulder of the Wing, for about three inches down, is bright Orange-colour. The Wings are very long, as is the Tail; having the two middle-feathers longer than the others by an inch and half, and end in a point; the rest are gradually shorter. The Legs and Feet are white: the small Feather covering the Thighs, are green, ending at the Knees with a verge of Orange-colour. They feed on Seeds and Kernels of fruit; particularly those of Cypress and Apples. The Orchards in Autumn are visited by numerous flights of them; where they make great destruction for their Kernels only: for the same purpose they frequent Virginia; which is the furthest North I ever heard they have been seen. Their Guts are certain and speedy poison to Cats. This is the only one of the Parrot kind in Carolina: some of them breed in the Country; but most of 'em retire more South.
The CYPRESS of America.
The Cypress (except the Tulip-tree) is the tallest and largest in these parts of the world. Near the ground some of 'em measure 30 foot in circumference, rising pyramidally six foot, where it is about two thirds less; from which to the limbs, which is usually 60 or 70 foot, it grows in like proportion of other trees. Four or five foot round this Tree (in a singular manner) rise many Stumps, some a little above ground, and others from one to four foot high, of various shape and size, their tops round, cover'd with a smooth red Bark. These Stumps shoot from the roots of the Tree, yet they produce neither Leaf nor Branch, the Tree increasing only by seed, which in form are like the common Cypress and contain a balsamic consistence of a fragrant smell. The Timber this Tree affords, is excellent, and particularly for covering Houses with, it being light, of a free Grain, and resisting the Injuries of the weather better than any other here. It is an Aquatic, and usually grows from one, five and six foot deep in water; which secure situation seems to invite a great number of different Birds to breed in its lofty branches; amongst which this Parrot delights to make its Nest, and in October, (at which Time the Seed is ripe) to feed on their Kernels.
Mark Catesby (1683 – 1749)
Facts regarding Catesby’s early years are scant. It is known that he was born in the ancient market town of Sudbury, England to a father who was a legal practitioner and mayor of Sudbury and to a mother from an old Essex family.  It seems that he received an understanding of Latin and French and was familiar with the eminent naturalist Reverend John Ray. Following his father’s death, he was endowed with the means to pursue his interest in the natural history of North America.
Catesby arrived in Virginia in 1712 as the guest of his sister and her husband, Dr. William Cocke, an aid the Governor of the colony.  Soon he was acquainted with the well-connected William Byrd, a Fellow of the Royal Society whose diary contains passages discussing Catesby’s strong curiosity with all things relating to North America. 
This included plants native to the fields and woods of Virginia through which Catesby traveled, collecting examples of botanical specimens unfamiliar in England, which he illustrated and sent back to his uncle, Nicholas Jekyll and the apothecary and botanist, Samuel Dale.
Catesby’s first trip to the New World was extensive and included a visit to Jamaica. Although he felt that his approach to a larger understanding of its natural history was lacking in structure, his experience would inform his future expeditions. 
Following his return to London in 1719 Catesby resolved to return to the colonies and gather additional information for his illustrated Natural History... He gained the financial support of members of the local scientific community, many of who were members of the Royal Society keen to send a naturalist to Carolina who could provide an accurate account of its resources.  Among those who belonged to the Royal Society was William Sherard, who after examining Catesby’s drawings, was key in advancing the project. With further backing by Sir Hans Sloane, court physician and naturalist whose collection would form the basis for The British Museum, Catesby sailed to Carolina in 1722.
Catesby’s four years of travels following his second arrival in North America brought him throughout South Carolina, parts of Georgia, and the Bahamas. He was 
intent on visiting the same location at different times throughout the year in order to observe his subjects as they developed. In addition to gathering botanical specimens of potential horticultural importance, he also acquired birds and other creatures.  
Catesby’s patrons in London were eager to receive examples of the varieties of plants and animals he encountered but collecting, packaging, and sending them back to England served as a distraction to his intended Natural History...  Nevertheless, he continued to observe, paint, and write descriptions of the previously un-investigated wildlife he encountered on the shores and in the swamps, woods, and fields of the middle American colonies.
Catesby returned to England from his final voyage to America in 1726 and spent the next seventeen years preparing his Natural History... He envisioned his work containing colored plates reproducing his studies from nature in a substantial, folio-sized format, an achievement nearly unprecedented in earlier natural history publications. Catesby arranged for financing in the form of an interest-free loan from the Quaker Peter Collinson, a fellow of the Royal Society. Nevertheless, the cost of paying professionals to prepare his delineations on copper plates for printing was too great. To this end, with the assistance of Joseph Goupy (1689–1769), a French artist living in London, he taught himself to etch.  In addition to producing nearly all of the plates for his publication, Catesby closely supervised the coloring of the engravings, either painting the impressions himself or closely overseeing the work to insure its fidelity to his preparatory work. To further finance the project Catesby sold subscriptions, offering his book in sections of 20 plates to be published every four months.
The first volume of Natural History of Carolina, Florida & the Bahama Islands, containing one hundred plates, was completed in 1731 and no doubt facilitated his election as a fellow of the Royal Society in February, 1733. The second volume, also containing one hundred plates, was finished in 1743 and was supplemented with twenty plates based on information sent to Catesby by John Bartram and others in in America appeared in 1746–1747. Of the approximately 180 - 200 copies of the first edition produced, roughly 80 copies remain complete and accounted for and there are an unknown number in private collections. A second edition was issued by George Edwards in 1754 and a third edition, published by Benjamin White, in 1771 who continued to print examples of the plates until at least 1816. As early as 1749 editions were produced for the European market with translations of the text in German, Latin, and Dutch. In these the plates for the first volume and appendix were re-etched by Johann Michael Seligmann and the plates for the second volume re-etched by Nicolaus Friedrich Eisenberger and Georg Lichtensteger.  
Catesby’s tenacity resulted in a sweeping and compelling study of American plants, animals, and marine life native to little documented lands in which he strove to assign scientific nomenclature to his subjects. Indeed, Linnaeus, in his 1758 Systema Naturae, made use of much information brought to light by Catesby using it as the foundation of his system of binomial nomenclature for American species.
Throughout the production of his Natural History…Catesby lived in London with his Elizabeth Rowland with whom he had four children and married in 1747, before his death in 1749.
*From James L. Reveal’s Identification of the plants and animals illustrated by Mark Catesby for The natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama islands in the appendix of The Curious Mr. Catesby, University of Georgia Press.

Monday, October 8, 2018

France vs. England: The Fight for Control over North America



As the Netherlands and Spain faded as North American Colonial powers at the turn of the 18th Century, France and England remained. The bitter battle for geographic dominance can be observed through two great maps.  Herman Moll's (English) 1715 'Beaver Map' and Guillaume De L'isle's (French) 1718 'Carte de la Louisiane' both claim the same land for their respective countries.  


DE L'ISLE, GUILLAUME (1675-1726). CARTE DE LA LOUISIANE ET DU COURS DU MISSISSIPI. PARIS: QUAY DU HOROLOGE, 1718


DE L'ISLE, Guillaume (1675-1726). Carte De La Louisiane Et Du Cours Du Mississipi sur un grand nombre de Memoires entrautres sur ceux de Mr. le Maire. Paris: Quay du Horologe, 1718.
Single sheet (20 x 26 1/2 inches; 29 3/4 x 36 1/4 inches, framed). Delicate original coloring (some discoloration at center fold).

As one of the most important and influential maps of the 18th Century, this map is considered to be the main source of all subsequent maps of the Mississippi and the Western regions of the United States.
The accuracy of Delisle's cartography accounts for its primacy, as commissioned Jesuit missionary Jacque le Maire to travel to Louisiana to correct earlier versions of his map, specifically the correct position of the mouth of the Mississippi River. This is an example of Delisle taking care to advertise his use of the direct sources in that he used le Maire's name in the title of the work itself. Delisle would become known as one of the first truly professional cartographers because of his attention to accuracy and strict scrutiny of all new reports from the New World to improve his craft.

One of the first printed maps to name Texas, it was a seminal depiction of the Mississippi that was enormously influential on subsequent cartography of the region. This map was the first to reflect accurately the routes of Hernando de Soto, Henry de Tonty, and Louis de St. Denis. Because of its accurate information on the Mississippi and its tributaries, this map served throughout the eighteenth century as the prototype for most subsequent renderings of that great river.

It was, moreover, a politically provocative and aggressive map: what Delisle labeled Florida in 1703 now appeared as the unmistakably French territory of Louisiana, stretching from the Rio Grande in the west to the Appalachians in the east. Delisle also pushed the boundary line of the English colonies closer to the Atlantic. Angry protests from the British and Spanish governments against this cartographic usurpation were followed by a cartographic war, in which the map makers of each country issued productions showing their own territorial claims.

Politics aside, Delisle's rendering of Texas was a distinct improvement over previously published attempts. It featured an improved depiction of the river system and a much more accurate view of the coast. It also credibly delineated for the first time the land routes of all of the important explorers, including de Soto and Moscoso in 1540 and 1542, La Salle in 1687, and de Leon in 1689. Delisle's sources were also clearly revealed by the many references to St. Denis's explorations; the currency of his information was evident from the appearance of Natchitoches on the Red River, founded only the year before the map was printed. Throughout the map are the ranges of many Indian tribes and the locations of their villages, while boldly displayed along the Texas coast is the legend 'nomadic and man-eating Indians.' The most important notation to Texas history, however, was that appearing along the Trinity: 'Mission de los Tiejas, etablie in 1716.' Referring to the earliest of the Spanish missions in East Texas, this phrase marked the first appearance of a form of the name Texas on a printed map and thus Delisle has received proper credit for establishing Texas as a geographic place name. This is an exceptionally important map for the cartography of the Mississippi, Florida, Texas, and the South. For all inquires please contact Greg McMurray, MLS, Director, Rare Books.



MOLL, HERMAN (1654-1732). A NEW AND EXACT MAP OF THE DOMINIONS OF THE KING OF GREAT BRITAIN ON YE CONTINENT OF NORTH AMERICA. LONDON: THOS: LOWNDES, JOHN BOWLES, AND I. KING, 1715.


2 sheets joined, float-mounted and framed (sheet size: 23 6/8 x 40 2/8 inches, full margins showing the plate mark; framed size: 29 x 45 inches). AN EXCEPTIONALLY FINE engraved map of North America, the title within an elegant frame at the top, the dedication to William Dowglass "Captain General of all ye Leeward Islands in America by Queen Anne" within an elaborate armorial cartouche lower center, five detailed inset maps or scenes added in lower portion, including "A Maof the Improved Part of Carolina", "A Maof the Principal Part of North America", the celebrated "A View of ye Industry of Beavers in Canada", "Draught of ye Town and Harbour of Charles-Town" with a key, and a maof Louisiana and East Florida, all with original colour in outline.
One of the most important maps of the 18th century relating to America, this was the first large-scale map to show English developments in North America, and also the first to show the American postal routes. Minutely detailed and finely engraved, this map includes some of the most thorough and exact detail to grace any 18th century map. It includes insets of Thomas Nairne’s important and early map of South Carolina, the English, French and Indian settlements in the Carolinas, and Charleston Harbor. Moll’s celebrated depiction of beavers at work occupies an inset at right, a view of Niagara Falls (and several of its inhabitants).
Moll emigrated to London from Germany in about 1675. By 1678 he is recorded as working for the map-maker Moses Pitt as an engraver and frequenting famous Jonathan's Coffee House, where he mingled with the likes of Daniel Defoe, Jonathan Swift, the buccaneers William Dampier and Woodes Rogers, John Oldmixon, Thomas Salmon, Samuel Simpson, and for all of whom he made maps to accompany their works. "Moll first gained notice in London in the late 1670s as a fine engraver working for map publishers such as Moses Pitt, Sir Jonas Moore, the royal hydrographer Greenville Collins, John Adair, [Jeremiah] Seller and [Charles] Price, and others. What can be identified as his two earliest maps-'America' and 'Europe' respectively-and bearing the imprint 'H. Mol schulp.' appeared in Moore's 'A New Systeme of the Mathematicks Containing … a New Geography' in 1681… Moll worked increasingly independently. He published his first solo volume, the now rare 'Atlas Thesaurus' in 1695, and in 1701, by which time he worked completely on his own, he published his first major work, 'A System of Geography', an informative global geography with a full complement of crisp, straightforward maps that sold initially for 18s. a copy. Although relatively traditional and derivative, it helped to establish him as an independent geographer-cartographer.
"Moll's reputation rests upon a long and extremely fertile career of almost sixty years that yielded a diverse offering of over two dozen geographies, atlases, and histories and a myriad of individual maps, charts, and globes, spanning the known earth. Through his many works, he had also had an impact beyond geography and cartography on his adopted country and its future by graphically staunchly advocating early British expansion and empire" (Dennis Reinhartz for DNB).

Friday, October 5, 2018

 Graham Arader and Arader Galleries support Nyack, New York



Overlooking the magnificent Hudson River in Nyack, New York, 'Pretty Penny', is a 6,500 square foot Italianate Victorian Estate that is owned by Graham Arader. It is recognized as a historical landmark for its architectural beauty, scenic location, and famous residents. Built in 1858, this picturesque home was bought by actress Helen Hayes and playwright Charles MacArthur for a "pretty penny." 





Thursday, October 4, 2018

THE MANIFEST DESTINY MAP

JOHN MELISH (1767-1822)
“Map of the United States with Contiguous British & Spanish Possessions”
Philadelphia: 1816
Copperplate engraving with outline color
49” x 63” framed

This landmark wall map, by John Melish, is highly coveted by collectors, as it is the first map to show the United States potentially stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, giving visual expression to the idea of “Manifest Destiny.” In the early 19th century, many Americans felt it was their mission to expand the borders of the United States westward for ideological, political and economic reasons. This map was published just as the notion of Manifest Destiny was crystallizing in the general American consciousness, and predicted the glorious fate that the young nation anticipated.
This grand map of the United States was also highly accurate and advanced in it's depiction of the geography of the United States, as it used information from the travel accounts of early 19th century explorers such as Zebulon Pike, Lewis and Clarke, Thomas Nuttall and William Darby. As Walter Ristow, a legendary American mapping historian, states of this map, “Melish played a foremost role in many and varied sources of the geographical and cartographical knowledge of the period, and presenting it systematically and graphical for the edification and enlightenment of the citizens of the voting republic.”

John Melish was a highly educated Scottish merchant who settled in Philadelphia in 1811, eventually to become one of the first great cartographers on the American continent. Melish drew on a number of official state maps to produce this mammoth map of the United States, which was used on several occasions to determine boundary lines between the United States and Mexico.

Monday, October 1, 2018

September 29th, 2018 Arader Galleries Auction Prices Realized and Success

Hello,

This Saturday marked another successful auction at Arader Galleries!  We are delighted to announce our September sale totaled $4,248,818. The 187 lot sale featured a selection of outstanding material. The Audubon birds section had two spectacular highlights from the Saschsen-Meinigen set of Audubon, which was owned by King William IV of England. Lot 14, the Hooping Crane sold for $260,350 and Lot 15, the Canvas-Backed Duck sold for $158,600.

A number of beautiful Redoute watercolors, the finest flower watercolors ever drawn and painted for Empress Josephine of France sold in the auction. Lot 49, the Botany-Bay Lily sold for $97,600 and Lot 50, the Caribbean New World Pancratius Lily sold for $79,300. Other watercolor highlights were Lot 70, a Humbolt watercolor and engraving of a Vulture selling for $19,850 and a Samuel Colman watercolor selling for $6,985.

Finally the sale rounded out with an excellent offering of antique maps and books. Lot 113, Beyer's Album of Virginia sold for $28,750 and Lot 141, Oronce's Fine's World Map from 1541 sold for $53,750. 

Our Auction will be November 17th featuring an amazing selection of rare maps and atlases from the 16th-20th centuries including works by Ptolemy, Ortelius, Blaeu, Visscher, Montanus, D'Anville, Jefferys, Burr, Young, Johnson, Colton and many other famous cartographers. 

On the morning of the 17th at 11am we will have a syndication of Redoute Roses of 42 shares for $15000 each with a guaranteed fair market value of $48,000 in three years.

Following that will be an auction on December 8th. That auction be a large sale of choice works including Audubon aquatints of birds and lithographs of the quadrupeds natural history works on paper, 10 Redoute watercolors, 10 watercolors by Le Moyne,  antique maps and rare books including a beautiful atlas by Sartine done during the American Revolution. 

Hope you can make it.

Truly,

Graham Arader 


The results are listed below:

Lot Title Premium
1 Audubon Aquatint, Long-Tailed Duck $6,250
2 Audubon Aquatint, Gadwall Duck $8,750
4 Audubon Aquatint Engraving, Pied Oyster Catcher $2,500
5 Audubon Aquatint, Children's Warbler $423
6 Audubon Aquatint, Blue-winged Yellow Warbler $406
7 Audubon Aquatint, Golden-crested Wren $1,063
8 Audubon Aquatint, Baltimore Oriole $9,375
9 Audubon Aquatint, Wood Ibis $55,000
10 Audubon Aquatint, Black-Billed Cuckoo $8,125
11 Audubon Aquatint, Glossy Ibis $18,750
12 Audubon Aquatint, Female Turkey $56,250
13 Audubon Aquatint, Ruffed Grous $56,250
14 Audubon Aquatint, Hooping Crane $266,500
15 Audubon Aquatint, Canvas Backed Duck $162,500
16 Audubon Aquatint, Yellow Crowned Heron $31,250
17 Audubon Lithograph, American Bison (Male) $26,250
18 Audubon Lithograph, American Bison (Female) $15,000
19 Audubon Lithograph, Cross Fox $2,750
20 Audubon Lithograph, Collared Peccary $4,688
21 Audubon Lithograph, Columbia Black-Tailed Deer $1,000
22 Audubon Lithograph, Four-striped Ground Squirrel $500
23 Audubon Lithograph, Pine Marten $594
24 Audubon Lithograph, Rocky Mountain Goat $1,560
25 Audubon Lithograph, White Weasel Stout $563
26 Audubon Lithograph, Swamp Hare $563
27 Audubon Lithograph, Cat Squirrel $500
28 Audubon Lithograph, Hudson Bay Squirrel $500
29 Audubon Lithograph, Migratory Squirrel $469
30 Thornton Aquatint, Carnations $1,875
31 Thornton Aquatint, China Limodoron $2,875
32 Thornton Aquatint, Tulips $7,188
33 Thornton Aquatint, American Cowslip $2,875
34 Thornton Aquatint, Queen Flower $2,500
35 Thornton Aquatint, Blue Passion Flower $2,625
36 Thornton Aquatint, Blue Egyptian Water-Lily $1,750
37 Thornton Aquatint, Persian Cyclamen $1,750
38 Thornton Aquatint, Cupid Inspiring Plants $1,375
39 Curtis, Pinks (Proof) $4,688
40 Curtis, Carnations (Proof) $5,000
41 Redoute Watercolor, Sea Lily $87,500
42 Redoute Watercolor, Three-Flowered Iris $84,375
43 Redoute Watercolor, Parrot Flower $93,750
44 Redoute Watercolor, Flabby-Leaved Canna $162,500
45 Redoute Watercolor, Blush-Colored Crinum $262,500
46 Redoute Watercolor, Tiger Lily $225,000
47 Redoute Watercolor, Golden Hurricane $225,000
48 Redoute Watercolor, Banana $362,500
49 Redoute Watercolor, Botany-Bay $100,000
50 Redoute Watercolor, Caribbean New World Pancratius Lily $87,500
51 Redoute Watercolor, Common Naked Ladies $78,125
52 Redoute Watercolor, Bird Of Paradise $112,500
53 Empson Watercolor, Datura $2,625
54 Empson Watercolor, Plains of Garapata $3,000
55 Empson Watercolor, Grapefruit $2,625
56 Empson Watercolor, Scarlet Star $3,000
57 Empson Watercolor, Sapote de Manquita $2,750
58 Empson Watercolor, Colvolvu $3,125
59 Schouman Watercolor, Snipes $3,750
60 Travies Osprey Watercolor $7,188
61 Fuertes Watercolor, Birds and Butterfly $5,000
62 2 Indian School Botanical Watercolors $625
63 Jensen Still Life of Roses $25,000
64 Colman Watercolor New Mexico $7,150
65 Dale Watercolor Sugar Loaf Mountain $12,188
66 Dighton Watercolor, Luxor, Egypt $8,750
67 Choris, Denmark Views $3,625
68 Demarcay, Narciss Watercolor $5,313
69 Fuertes Watercolor, Auks $12,500
70 Humbolt Watercolor Vulture $19,500
71 Ede Watercolor Swan $3,875
72 Benson Watercolor Bird in Flight $3,375
73 Gronvold Watercolor Roseate Pelican $8,750
74 Jaques, Flock of Geese $10,000
75 Bull, Red Fox Watercolor $2,375
76 Howitt, Panther Watercolor $3,438
77 Schiedel, Ocelot Watercolor $3,750
78 Company School Watercolor, Elephant $3,750
79 Alken Hunting Dog Wantercolor Pass
80 Cayley Kookaburra Watercolor Pass
81 Japanese Whale Watercolor $3,875
82 Four Elliot Bird Lithographs $520
83 Chinese School Butterfly Watercolor $1,300
84 Cheinese School Moth Watercolor $1,375
85 Descourtilz, Brazilian Bird Chromolithograph $650
86 Descourtilz, Brazilian Bird Chromolithograph $650
87 Japanese Falcon Watercolor Pass
88 Japanese Falcon Watercolor Pass
89 Japanese Falcon Watercolor $1,040
90 Japanese Falcon Watercolor Pass
91 Japanese Falcon Watercolor Pass
92 Japanese Falcon Watercolor Pass
93 Digby, Falcon Watercolor Pass
94 Riding Icelandic Falcon Copperplate Pass
95 Gauguin Noa Noa 1st Ed. $1,250
96 Kotzebue Voyage of Discovery $6,563
97 Lahontan North American Travels Pass
98 Moore Ferns of Great Britain and Ireland Pass
99 Culpeper English Physitian Pass
100 Albin Natural History of Birds $12,500
101 Mivart / Keulemans Lories Pass
102 Martyn English Entomologist Pass
103 Albin Natural History of Insects Pass
104 Thevet Cosmographie 1575 Pass
105 Pulgar Siege of Granada $1,300
106 Chasteuil-Gallaup Louis XIII Entry to Aix $3,125
107 Vieillot Natural History of Birds Pass
108 Vallet, Florilegium 1623 Pass
109 Lescarbot New France 1609 Pass
110 Ramusio New World Voyages Pass
111 Collot New France 1826 $168,750
112 Jefferson Notes on the State of Virginia $31,250
113 Beyer Album of Virginia $28,750
114 Gould Birds of Asia $225,000
115 Gould Birds of Australia $250,000
116 Gould Birds of Europe $93,750
117 Gould Birds of Great Britain $118,750
118 Gould Family of Trogons $43,750
119 Gould Hummingbirds $187,500
120 Gould Birds of Himalaya $25,000
121 Catlin North American Indian Portfolio Pass
122 Bodmer Aquatint, Pehriska-Ruhpa $4,688
123 Bodmer Aquatint, Yellow Stone River Junction $5,000
124 Catlin Lithograph, Buffalo Hunt, Chase $3,375
125 Bodmer Aquatint, Rocky Mountains $4,375
126 Catlin Lithograph, Buffalo Hunt, Chase Pass
127 Catlin Lithograph, Wounded Buffalo $1,000
128 Hondius Map of Southeast, USA Pass
129 Visscher, Novi Belgii $4,750
130 De Bry Map of Americas Pass
131 Jeffreys Map of Gulf Coast Pass
132 North American Boundry Maps Pass
133 Colton Map of Wet Pass
134 Lotter Plan of Philadelphia $3,625
135 Mortier Map of Chesapeake Bay $6,250
136 Ensign Map of America Pass
137 Toby Texas Land Grant Pass
138 Maps of Gulf of Mexico $938
139 Colton Map of Nebraska and Kansas $4,550
140 Forlani Map of South America $62,500
141 Fine World Map $53,750
142 Doolittle Colonial Print Pass
144 Manuscript Map of Gibraltar Pass
145 Coronelli World Map $1,690
146 Murer Map of Zurich $18,750
147 Scolari / Blaeu Map of Germany Pass
148 Kahler Print of Buenos Aires Pass
149 Blaeu Africa $2,250
150 Visscher, Four Asian Cities Pass
151 Ritter World Map Pass
152 De Bry Map of Goa Pass
153 Blaeu Map of Southeast US $2,250
154 Blaeu Map of Virginia Pass
155 Janssonius Map of East coast $1,040
156 Simmons Map of Baltimore $875
157 Magnus Battle of Bull Run $375
158 Zatta Map of East Coast $500
159 Cram Map of Texas $780
160 Johnson Map of Texas $390
161 Kidder Lithograph of Andover Seminary Pass
162 Dudley Map of Lisbon Pass
163 Dudley Map of La Rochelle Pass
164 Dudley Map of Gibraltar $2,375
165 Ortelius Map of France Pass
166 De Jode Map of Turkey Pass
167 Probst View of Constantinople $1,250
168 Saxton Map of York $6,250
169 Coronelli Globe Gore Pass
170 Coronelli Globe Gore Pass
171 Coronelli Globe Gore Pass
172 Coronelli Globe Gore Pass
173 Coronelli Globe Gore $2,500
174 Coronelli Globe Gore $2,375
175 Coronelli Globe Gore Pass
176 Coronelli Globe Gore $1,500
177 Coronelli Globe Gore $1,500
178 Smith View of New Haven $9,375
179 Sauthier Map of New York $3,750
180 Hill Aquatint of New York Pass
181 Cole South Boston $438
182 Pellegrin Navel Watercolor Pass
183 Mooy Naval Scene Pass
184 Hampton Roads Naval Lithograph $406
185 Durand Capture of Major Andre Pass
186 Currier and Ives Trotting Mares $650
187 Currier and Ives American Forest Scene $5,000
     
    $4,248,818